Processing Facility

Bushveld Minerals: Bushveld Vanchem

Vanchem is a primary vanadium processing facility with a beneficiation plant – located at Ferrobank Industrial Park in Emalahleni Local Municipality, Mpumalanga Province, in South Africa.


Vanchem Produces:

  • Vanadium Pentoxide
  • Ferrovanadium
  • Vanadium Chemicals

The facility is also capable of producing vanadium trioxide.


Vanchem’s ore supply is a blend between the Vametco Upper Seam project and third-party ore, and also utilises the salt-roast beneficiation process.

During the first half of 2023, a new supply agreement for lower-silica ore than the Upper seam ore, was agreed at Vanchem with a third party, and it is anticipated to allow for higher recoveries – resulting in a more stable production rates at no additional costs.

Ferrovanadium Processing Stages

Bushveld Vanadium's Vanchem processing facility employs the standard salt-roast and leach process to produce ferrovanadium.

Step 1

Magnetite Concentrate:

Crushing, milling and magnetic separation to produce a magnetite concentrate with average grades of 1,65% V2O5 in-magnetite

Step 2


Sodium salt roasting the concentrate in a kiln at ±1 150°C to form a water-soluble sodium vanadates material

Step 3


Leaching and purification, with dissolution of roasted vanadium concentrate in water, purification and precipitation of vanadium through the addition of ammonium sulphate, followed by drying and then processing in a reducing environment to produce an Ammonium Metavanadate (AMV) product

Step 4

Vanadium Pentoxide:

De-ammoniating and melting the AMV to produce vanadium pentoxide flakes – a primary product, also used in other processes to produce a spectrum of vanadium chemicals

Step 5


Reducing vanadium pentoxide by aluminium in the aluminothermic process, in the presence of iron, to produce ferrovanadium – a primary product